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Copyright © 2012
Deutsches Institut für Japanstudien(Hg.)
Japanstudien. Band 3/1991. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Instituts für Japanstudien
1992 • Bd. 3 • ISBN 978-3-89129-366-9 • ISSN 0938-6491
14,5 x 22 cm; 382 S., geb.; EUR 50,-
Die japanische Gesellschaft wird bis heute meist unter dem Aspekt des Harmonischen gesehen und beschrieben. Da das seit etwa zehn Jahren in der Japanforschung debattierte Konzept eines Konflikt-Modells zur Deutung Japans im deutschsprachigen Raum bisher wenig Beachtung gefunden hat, andererseits jedoch gerade die deutsche Japanforschung wichtige Beiträge zu dieser Diskussion liefern könnte, hat sich das "Deutsche Institut für Japanstudien" entschlossen, die Frage "Konflikt" zum Schwerpunktthema für den dritten Band seines Jahrbuches zu wählen. In den hier versammelten Forschungsbeiträgen wird Japan als komplexes, vielschichtiges, monokausalen Erklärungsversuchen nicht zugängliches Phänomen aufgefaßt und Konflikt als integraler Bestandteil der japanischen Kultur gesehen.
- Taranczewski, Detlev: Streit um Wasser: Konflikt und Kooperation in der mittelalterlichen Reisbauerngesellschaft: DETLEV TARANCZEWSKI
Struggle for Water: Conflict and Cooperation in Medieval Japanese Rice Cultivating Society
Cases of conflict over irrigation and hydraulic engineering in medieval Japan are considered in terms of current research trends in international conflict studies. Since these cases were so specific to the essentially agrarian social structure of that time, their study reveals dynamic social forces which do not, however, lend themselves to current theories of conflict.
- Krebs, Gerhard: Deutschland und der Februarputsch in Japan 1936: GERHARD KREBS
Germany and the February 26, 1936 Incident in Japan
At the end of 1935, moves toward German-Japanese rapprochement, which were soon to lead to the Antikomintern Pact, had already been initiated by meetings between Oshima Hiroshi, military attaché in Berlin, and NSDAP representative Joachim von Ribbentrop. At that time, owing to the deplorable social state of the rural population and rivalry within the army, Japan was in turmoil. On February 26, 1936, young officers rose in revolt against the government, killing a number of politicians and officers. The German Embassy, located in the governmental sector occupied by the rebels, was in danger of being drawn into the conflict. The revolt was, however, put down on February 29, without further violent actions. Only years later did it become known what kind of sources the German diplomats of the time had relied on.
A further development advanced German-Japanese rapprochement: Since Admiral Okada's cabinet had not favored approval of the Antikomintern Pact, his resignation as prime minister (a consequence of the February 26 incident) favoured the interests of the victorious army faction, a development which led to the adoption of the Antikomintern Pact as official policy. This way, Germany and Japan were temporarily joined against the Soviet Union. While the army clique's policy and ideology promoted a long-term anti-Western tendency in Japanese-German cooperation, however, the officers of the defeated "Kôdô faction", had committed themselves exclusively to an anti-Soviet attitude. No longer in active service, this faction functioned rather as an anti-German opposition and developed into a movement for an early peace agreement during the Pacific War.
- Frobenius, Sebastian: Matsunawa Shinta und der Konflikt um die Einführung des Metrischen Systems in Japan: SEBASTIAN FROBENIUS
Matsunawa Shinta and the Introduction of the Metric System in Japan
Matsunawa Shinta was a Japanese railway official with pythagorean ambitions, worked with weight, measure and rule not only as a technician but also as a social reformer. He sometimes set his thoughts on paper in diagrammatic form. Among his papers we find, for example, an isocelese triangle on whose sides the words kempô (constitution), moji to kotoba (written characters and language) and keiryôshisô (judicious mind) are written. Japan's frequent postponements of the adoption of the metric system suggested to Matsunawa a state of uncertainity in Japanese society. He argued that were Japan to adopt a metric system as had Germany, it could avoid numerous false starts in politics, language reform, and economic planning. "Weigh up and wade in" was Matsunawa's advice, a motto inspired by Germany's determined handling of weights and measures. In the uncertain Japan of Matsunawa's time, all too often the principle followed was "wade in and weigh up". A number of contemporaries of Matsunawa enhanced his contribution through their activities. These men included physicist Tanakadate Aikitsu, politician Ozaki Yukio, architects Itô Chûta and Sano Toshiki, philosophers Tosaka Jun and Miki Kiyoshi, law professor Tanaka Kôtarô, and entertainer Ei Rokusuke, thanks to whom certain Japanese measurements - once banned by Matsunawa - were once more legalized towards the end of the seventies. Out of the metric universe conceived by Matsunawa, a new east-west multiverse of measurements emerged.
- Antoni, Klaus: Tradition und "Traditionalismus" im modernen Japan - ein kulturanthropologischer Versuch: KLAUS ANTONI
Tradition and "Traditionalism" in Modern Japan: A Cultural-Anthropological Approach
The present article challenges a familiar explanatory model used to describe Japanese culture, raising the question of whether the antagonistic categories "traditional" and "modern" are adequate in view of the complexity of Japanese culture. Focusing on selected cultural anachronisms the analysis reveals them to be generally ideologically motivated creations specific to the modern age. In accordance with recent scholarly developments, the present study proposes the application of a third category, that of "traditionalism" as developed by D. Rothermund to the study of Japanese culture, in order to help identify the presence of "artificial traditions" (Hobsbawm) which appeal to an apparent authenticity.
- Foljanty-Jost, Gesine: Konfliktregulierung durch Integration: ein Weg zu politischer Stabilität: GESINE FOLJANTY-JOST
Conflict Resolution by Integration: A Path to Political Stability
This article examines the dominance of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party in post-war Japan in the cases of several political conflicts. One explanatory hypothesis claims that the Japanese political system is supported by institutions which enable the ruling party to resolve conflicts within its own decision-making process and thus help to maintain itself in power. A dual conflict-resolution model is established: realpolitik questions are solved through offers of integration and participation in the decision-making process directed primarily at influential elites connected with the LDP. However, under certain conditions, negotiations are proposed to the opposition party as well. In fundamental conflicts with the left-wing opposition, however, since there exists neither the necessity nor opportunity for negotiations or compromise, unconcealed extrasystemic power struggles prevail. In general conflict-resolution by integration and strong one-party rule strengthen and perpetuate LDP dominance.
Many years of rule have allowed the LDP to monopolize decision-making in collaboration with bureaucracies and powerful lobbyists. Divergences are resolved by institutionalized involvement of the opposition parties in the political process. This policy of "cooperation" promotes the acceptance of political decisions and the efficient implementation of governmental measures, preconditions for political stability and the reproduction of political power.
- Kevenhörster, Paul: Der gefesselte Riese - Innenpolitische Barrieren außenpolitischer Strategien: PAUL KEVENHÖRSTER
The Shackled Giant: Domestic Barriers to Foreign Policy Strategies
Discussions of Japan's role as a world power inevitably touch on the issues of economic and social innovation, rapid social change and Japan's international leadership responsibilities. The foreign policy of Japan results from a decision-making process by the nation's political-administrative system, involving an array of foreign policy negotiating strategies. The key independent variables here are the resources available, the ability of the political-administrative system to use them, the predispositions of the decision makers, the framework and limits of the political system, and the foreign policy decision making structures and processes themselves.
The future of Japanese foreign policy rests neither on a "Pax Americana" nor a " Pax Nipponica" but rather on a synthesis of networks of regional cooperation as well as on the increasing interdependence of the world economy, involving an increasing role on the part of international organizations.
- Herold, Renate: Arbeitskonflikte: RENATE HEROLD
A striving for harmony, thought to be specific to Japanese society, is also characteristic of Japanese relations between employers and employees. Working life is not, however, in fact harmonious all the time. Whether they are ignored, resolved in a peaceful way, or settled after direct confrontation, conflicts do occur. This article provides a description of formal conflict-resolution with specific case studies. Of particular concern are the problems of working women and specifically tension-prone job situations. Analysis includes consideration of the impact of new legislation, job market fluctuations and changes in value perception.
- Hemmert, Martin: Konflikte zwischen Klein- und Großunternehmen - ist die Struktur der japanischen Industrie dualistisch?: MARTIN HEMMERT
Conflicts between Small and Large Companies: The Persisting Debate about Japan's Dualistic Structure
The issue of whether and to what extent there is a peculiar industrial "dualism" in the Japanese economy has been an issue in Japan for decades. Small enterprises comprise an unusually high proportion of the economy. When conducting an analysis of this issue from multiple perspectives, however, the results differ significantly. While the macroeconomic performances of small and medium enterprises are no worse than those of the larger firms, in terms of business results there is a large gap that has been growing wider in recent years. The bargaining position of small and medium subcontracting companies relative to their large customers has been improving in the 1970s and 80s, but inequality continues to characterize the subcontracting relations. Size-specific discrimination on the capital market has also lost some of its momentum in recent years. In the labor market, however, the gap between small and large businesses persists. On the whole, since findings tend to depend on the indicators used in investigating the industrial structure in Japan, a broad analytic approach is preferable.
- Herbert, Wolfgang: Die Tagelöhner-Unruhen im Oktober 1990 in Osaka und deren struktureller Hintergrund: WOLFGANG HERBERT
The Osaka Day Labourers` Riot in October 1990: A Structural Analysis
Unlike conventional research on yoseba (day labourer quarters) this article uses a participation-observation method and focuses on the circumstances underlying the phenomenon of bôdô (labour unrest). The day labourer subculture is characterized by structural dependencies (physical and economic restraints including employment practices, police control, "disciplining" by selective public relief measures). Conspicuous infringements of the "implied" social contract between day labourers and the authorities (police, yakuza-organized gangsters, administration) are usually the immediate cause of bôdô, which are spontanous, violent protest actions performed by workers collectively in defence of their rights. Bôdô tend to escalate into major disturbances, due to the repressive actions of special police units.
The "traditional" explanation for the Osaka bôdô of 1990 points to a corruption scandal, involving a conspiracy between yakuza and the police. The actual cause, however, was the wholesale transformation of Japan's biggest yoseba> in Kamagasaki. Here a distinctive dual structure emerges, yielding well-paid young, healthy workers in contrast to the typical older, feeble day labourers, who are generally excluded from social security. This situation, evoking anxiety about the future as well as indignation about traditional mechanisms of exploitation, led to the eruption of conflicts which had been festering beneath the surface. The mass media provided only brief coverage of the riots, dismissing them as "scandalous", and disregarding the daily life of the labourer, giving the impression that bôdô were isolated, irrational events.
The present author argues, to the contrary, that bôdô are an indication of an endemic, conflict-oriented tradition in Japanese society and that they represent only one type of conflict management, a structural analysis of which may provide an alternative model to the widespread "harmonic" explanation models of the Japanese social system.
- Ackermann, Peter: Menschenformung und Konflikt: PETER ACKERMANN
Education and Conflict. Tension in the Japanese School System?
The present article focuses on a basic dilemma in intercultural communication: can outsiders investigate "conflict" when the subjects of research do not themselves perceive its existence? How can researchers dialogue with people who have not consciously recognized the existence of "conflict"? What if the researcher discovers that the data referring to conflictual phenomena cannot be dealt with in a scientific way?
According to an analysis of the ranking and description of conflictual incidents in important norm-determining studies published by the Ministry of Education, especially in high schools, conflictual situations may be plotted on a linear axis representing the following criteria: representation of human beings as naturally virtuous and social individuals, perception of factors which induce the individual to deviate from the path of virtue, rediscovery of virtue, and conflict resolution.
The present article does not deal with the question of whether there are situations in Japan which can be called conflicts in our sense of the meaning. It does, however, focus on the language level where conflicts are no issue at all. The examined material gives clear evidence that this is due to the fact that any conflictual situation is part of a linear process leading to a clear solution.
The relationship between education and conflict thus appears to be such that the former gradually leads to the disappearance of the latter, without, however, making conflict an issue.
- Luhmer, Klaus, SJ: Konfliktfaktoren im japanischen Hochschulwesen: KLAUS LUHMER, SJ
Conflict in the Japanese University
The widely accepted notion of a correspondence between economic development and education is apparent in Japans high-growth economy and its educational system. Despite its general structural uniformity (admission policy, length of study, curriculum, institutional regulations, etc.), however, the Japanese universities are in fact strongly differentiated by enormous gaps in performance.
The university system is a reflection of Japanese society's emphasis on high achievement level and competition. The advantage of such an elitist educational system is that it provides a highly trained work force. It falls short, however, in the area of critical analysis, another important educational objective. Concentrating on practical training rather than cultivation of the mind, the educational process suffers from impediments in the form of frenzy-filled preparation phases ("exam hell" or admission tests, juku, yobikô, ,rônin').
The tripartite structure of the university system, consisting of governmental, community and private institutions, each representing a major share of the overall volume, gives rise to internal conflicts: differences of goals and approaches between administrative and academic interests lead to rival group formation and power clashes. Although fierce controversies are rare, this tripartite structure is particularly detrimental in the area of financing. The distribution of public funds differs enormously among the three sectors as well as within each of them. The financial burden on parents of students attending private universities is incompatible with the principle of equal access to education, a principle also guaranteed by the Japanese Constitution and the Education Act. Yet, since the student disturbances of the 1960s, there has been no organized resistance to this state of affairs.
- Scheid, Bernhard: Die Richtung der Steine - Konzepte des Go-Spiels im kulturellen Vergleich: BERNHARD SCHEID
Direction of the Stones: The Game of Go in Cultural Comparison
The game of go is compared to chess in terms of a) "dramaturgical" differences (a climactic endgame [chess] versus a climactic middlegame [go]; a decisive battle vs. a protracted war); b) strategic differences (annihilation of the enemy [chess] versus conquest of territory [go]; c) one direction of attack versus permanently changing directions of attack); and d) differing criteria for deciding victory and defeat.
The resulting "chess model" and a "go model" are considered in terms of the cultures where they have become most popular. The models are also compared with other social "games", including election campaigns, economies, and warfare. While each model is said to share something in common with its respective culture of origin, both also suggest modes of conflict resolution identified with "Eastern" and "Western" societies.